Flooding is a dangerous natural phenomenon caused by rising water levels in bodies of water, leading to flooding of areas.

Prolonged rainfall

Occurring mostly in the summer and autumn in regions with a humid climate. Causes regional flooding mainly when rivers burst their banks. This is because rivers collect water over vast areas. Precipitation strongly affects their water level.

Accumulation of rainfall

Precipitation causes some parts of rivers to rise. This causes the water level to rise.


A tsunami wave brings with it a huge amount of water which causes flooding of the coastlines. But the tsunami only lasts for a short time.

Dam failure

When a dam, for whatever reason, is no longer able to contain the water, it fails. This causes transient but severe flooding.

Natural phenomena

Some natural phenomena can also cause flooding. For example, earthquakes and landslides can block river channels. And storm surges can sometimes be like a tsunami, only much weaker.

Types of floods

  • A flood is a gradual but relatively prolonged rise in water levels in rivers caused by precipitation or melting snow. Can be catastrophic.
  • Flood – a violent but short-lived rise in water level, also caused by melting snow or precipitation, but very heavy.
  • Jam – the blockage of a river bed, resulting in flooding of areas.
  • Wind-driven surge – a short-term but severe flooding caused by the action of strong winds on the water surface.
  • Other types. Caused by a wide variety of causes.

Consequences of flooding

Most floods that do occur are relatively minor. They cause little material damage, depending on the severity of the phenomenon and the terrain. They may also occasionally cause evacuation of people, although houses are usually not flooded (unless they are located in depressions). In general, such floods are not very dangerous.

Sometimes very severe or even catastrophic floods occur. They can flood entire settlements, causing enormous material damage. In such cases, mass evacuations are carried out, but people often die anyway. Fortunately, such dangerous floods are quite rare.